CICLOPS: Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for OPerationS
The Face of Phoebe

The Face of Phoebe
PIA 06064

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  Phoebe's true nature is revealed in startling clarity in this mosaic of two images taken during Cassini's flyby on June 11, 2004. The image shows evidence for the emerging view that Phoebe may be an ice-rich body coated with a thin layer of dark material. Small bright craters in the image are probably fairly young features. This phenomenon has been observed on other icy satellites, such as Ganymede at Jupiter. When impactors slammed into the surface of Phoebe, the collisions excavated fresh, bright material -- probably ice -- underlying the surface layer. Further evidence for this can be seen on some crater walls where the darker material appears to have slid downwards, exposing more light-colored material. Some areas of the image that are particularly bright -- especially near lower right -- are over-exposed.

An accurate determination of Phoebe's density -- a forthcoming result from the flyby -- will help Cassini mission scientists understand how much of the little moon is comprised of ices.

This spectacular view was obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe-spacecraft, angle of 84 degrees, and from a distance of approximately 32,500 kilometers (20,200 miles). The image scale is approximately 190 meters (624 feet) per pixel. No enhancement was performed on this image.

In 2012, Cassini scientists published their findings, derived from theoretical modeling using data from a variety of Cassini instruments, that Phoebe almost surely is a large planetesimal which formed in the early Kuiper Belt before being captured into orbit around Saturn. The new analysis showed Phoebe likely was heated early in its history and consequently is nearly spherical and has denser rock-rich material concentrated near its center. Its average density, in fact, is about the same as Pluto, another object in the Kuiper Belt. Phoebe was likely captured by Saturn when it got close to the giant planet in the past.

[Caption updated April 26, 2012.]

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission, visit and the Cassini imaging team home page,

Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Released: June 13, 2004 (PIA 06064)
Image/Caption Information

Alliance Member Comments
Dragon_of_Luck_Mah_Jonng1971 (Oct 11, 2008 at 4:10 PM):
That is Phoebe in full view ! It appears to be a primitive, unmodified body captured by Saturn. Because of its actual orbit. It is ice-rich because it appears bright. But it has got also a coating of darker material. I think it was a Trans-Neptunian Body, an icy 'planetesimal' , before having been captured. It's the smallest Saturnian satellite that is 'mid-sized or large' by my classification.