CICLOPS: Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for OPerationS
Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion

Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion
PIA 14920

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Titan's South Polar Vortex in Motion
PIA 14920

Avg Rating: 9.57/10

Still Image Full Size 479x515:
PNG 137 KB
  This movie captured by NASA'S Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or a mass of swirling gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturn's moon Titan. The swirling mass appears to execute one full rotation in about nine hours - much faster than the moon's 16-day rotation period. The images were taken before and after a distant flyby of Titan on June 27, 2012.

The south pole of Titan (3,200 miles, or 5,150 kilometers, across) is near the center of the view.

Since Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in 2004, Titan has had a visible "hood" high above the north pole (see PIA08137). It was northern winter at Cassini's arrival, and much of the high northern latitudes were in darkness. But the hood, an area of denser, high altitude haze compared to the rest of the moon's atmosphere, was high enough to still be illuminated by sunlight. The seasons have been changing since Saturn's August 2009 equinox signaled the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere and fall in the southern hemisphere for the planet and its many moons. Now the high southern latitudes are moving into darkness. The formation of the vortex at Titan's south pole may be related to the coming southern winter and the start of what will be a south polar hood.

These new, more detailed images are only possible because of Cassini's newly inclined orbits, which are the next phase of Cassini Solstice Mission. Previously, Cassini was orbiting in the equatorial plane of the planet, and the imaging team's images of the polar vortex between late March and mid-May were taken from over Titan's equator. At that time, images showed a brightening or yellowing of the detached haze layer on the limb, or edge of the visible disk of the moon, over the south polar region.

See PIA14919 for a similar view in color.

Scientists think these new images show open cell convection. In open cells, air sinks in the center of the cell and rises at the edge, forming clouds at cell edges. However, because the scientists can't see the layer underneath the layer visible in these new images, they don't know what mechanisms may be at work.

Cosmic ray hits on the camera detectors appear as bright dots in some frames of the movie.

The Cassini Solstice Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini Solstice Mission visit, and

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute
Released: July 10, 2012 (PIA 14920)
Image/Caption Information

Alliance Member Comments
Andrew Planet (Dec 31, 2012 at 4:36 PM):
That teaches me not to just view the video! I quote above ''Cosmic ray hits on the camera detectors appear as bright dots in some frames of the movie.''
Andrew Planet (Dec 31, 2012 at 4:23 PM):
I keep seeing far more than two spots, say eight to nine simultaneously at least and at different intensities of brightness. Maybe its like sprites or as in the following web article
Spacefleet (Jul 11, 2012 at 1:32 AM):
In the movie, there are two very bright, small white spots moving around outside the vortex. Any ideas what these might be?